It's the first airstrike since President Trump announced last week he's withdrawing U.S. troops from Syria. No damage or injuries were reported.
Iran has repeatedly stated that its forces maintain an exclusively advisory role in Syria, and denies any plans to establish a permanent military presence in the country.
Syria confirmed that most of the missiles were intercepted before they could land.
Also reportedly targeted were strategic Iranian supplies to Hezbollah, including advanced Global Positioning System components for use in the many, many missiles that the Lebanese terror group has aimed at Israel.
SANA said "a number of enemy targets were downed" by the air defences.
Moscow's defence ministry earlier said Israeli strikes had endangered two passenger planes.
Footage shared on social media showed an air defense missile being fired near Hadera in northern Israel.
Speaking on Israeli army radio, Yadlin said: "The probability [of the report] is very low", adding that "we're trying to piece the picture together, with the official Israel remaining silent".
Shortly before the announcement, Syrian sources reported a strike on the Damascus region and said Syrian air defenses had been activated.
Israel has acknowledged carrying out hundreds of air strikes in Syria against what it says are Iranian military targets and advanced weapons deliveries to Hezbollah.
During the more than seven-year conflict in neighbouring Syria, Israel has grown increasingly alarmed by the expanding clout of Iran - a key ally of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.
Mahan Air has been targeted by US sanctions for delivering arms to Syria, which at least partly reach the Lebanese Hezbollah, designated as a terror group by the U.S.
Newsweek - citing a US Defense Department official - reported that several Hezbollah leaders were hit in a strike carried out by Israel shortly after they boarded a plane set to depart the Syrian capital for Iran.