Al-Jubeir said Saudi Arabia did not know what happened to Khashoggi's body and has not heard any audio from inside the consulate.
Erdogan spoke after Saudi Arabia, in a statement early Saturday, finally acknowledged that 59-year-old Khashoggi had died in the consulate, though its explanation that he was killed in a "fistfight" was met with worldwide skepticism and allegations of a cover-up created to absolve Prince Mohammed of direct responsibility.
King Salman similarly made a condolence call as worldwide pressure on the kingdom continues to rise, even after it acknowledged on Saturday that the Washington Post journalist was killed October 2 at the consulate under still-disputed circumstances.
The King called Salah Khashoggi, the Washington Post journalist's eldest son, to express "his condolences to the family and relatives of the late Jamal Khashoggi", the state-run SPA news agency reported.
"The Turks have been talking more to the media than they have us", Corker said of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation ally.
Turkey will "never allow a cover-up" of the killing of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi in Saudi Arabia's consulate in Istanbul, a senior official in Turkey's ruling party says.
On Sunday, Britain, France and Germany said in a joint statement, "Nothing can justify this killing and we condemn it in the strongest possible terms".
Economy and Energy Minister Peter Altmaier told ZDF television that the German government would not approve any new arms sales to Saudi Arabia and would urge other European Union member states to follow this example.
For Saudi Arabia's allies - particularly in the West - the question will be whether they believe that the prince, who has painted himself as a reformer, has any culpability. "We will ultimately make our judgement based on the credibility of the further explanation we receive about what happened and our confidence that such a shameful event can not and will not ever be repeated".
Commenting on the controversial death of the Saudi columnist, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said in an interview broadcast on Sunday that his country could "cancel a $15bn defense contract with Riyadh over the killing", reports the same source.
"First we were told Mr. Khashoggi supposedly left the consulate and there was blanket denial of any Saudi involvement. We will act accordingly", he said in Parliament on Monday.
"Jamal Khashoggi's killing is a violently planned and a very complicated murder, which was being covered up", Celik said.
CNN aired the footage on Monday, citing a Turkish official as describing the man as a "body double" and a member of a 15-man Saudi team sent to Istanbul to target the writer.
The king also ordered a restructuring of the intelligence service, to be led by Prince Mohammed, suggesting the prince still retained wide-ranging authority.
Meanwhile, many Western countries did not believe the version of the story made public by Saudi Arabia.