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Viviani edged Italian countryman Sacha Modolo at the finish line and pumped his fist in triumph in a near repeat of his sprint victory on Saturday in Tel Aviv. The general classification was unlikely to change on the predominantly flat route however, with the GC contenders eyeing the upcoming stage on return to Italy.
The race will then transfer to Italy, and the island of Sicily, for an early rest day on Monday.
After starting his 20th Grand Tour in a row at the Giro d'Italia in Jerusalem on Friday, Lotto Soudal's Adam Hansen confirmed his plan to take a break from three-week stage races this July to focus on new goals in the autumn.
Giro d'Italia is the biggest and most prestigious sporting event staged in Israel and coincides with the Jewish state's 70th anniversary.
"For me, Israel has already won this race, as it afforded hundreds of millions of TV spectators to see our handsome country and feel the warmth of our people", he told The Associated Press.
When I found out a few days ago that I was off third last today, in between Chris Froome and former world time trial champion Tony Martin, my cousin Eric reassured me that at least if I wasn't going well the cameras would probably be focused on the other two anyway. "For me, Israel has already won this race, as it afforded hundreds of millions of TV spectators to see our handsome country, and feel the warmth of our people, bearing witness that Israel is a diverse, open, free and safe country".
In its 101-year history, the Giro has previously opened a dozen times outside Italy but never outside Europe.
Australian Rohan Dennis finished in the peloton and managed to keep the pink Jersey of the leader.
Giro organisers have previously mooted the possibility of starting the race in Tokyo or Washington, but Dennis said there must be a limit in terms of how far riders are expected to travel from one day to the next.
The Giro d'Italia's Israeli excursion is over, and now the excitement begins. The Giro ends in Rome on May 27.
On Wednesday, after a 65km training ride in the morning, we had an afternoon meeting cancelled at the last moment so my team-mates and I took a taxi into the old town for a wander around and, apart from the beauty of the area, the first thing we noticed was the amount of armed police everywhere.